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1. Describe how formative and summative evaluations would be used in your program that you are planning.
2. Describe ways you would use process, impact and outcome evaluation in your program.
Supporting definitions for formative, summative, process, impact, and outcome eval- uation are presented below.
- Formative evaluation: “Any combination of measurements obtained and judgments made before or during the implementation of materials, methods, activities or programs to control, assure or improve the quality of performance or delivery” (Green & Lewis, 1986, p. 362). Examples include, but are not limited to, pretesting, or pilot-testing a program. Data derived from formative evaluation help revise intervention components (content, methods, and materials) as well as instruments and data collection procedures (Windsor et al., 2004).
- Summative evaluation: “Any combination of measurements and judgments that permit conclusions to be drawn about impact, outcome, or benefits of a program or
- Process evaluation: “Is used to monitor and document program implementation and can aid in understanding the relationship between specific program elements and program outcomes” (Saunders, Evans, & Joshi, 2005, p. 134). The central purposes for process evaluation are to “identify the key components of an intervention that are effective, to identify for whom the intervention is effective, and to identify under what conditions the intervention is effective” (Steckler & Linnan, 2002, p. 1). It also evaluates the “extent to which a program is being implemented as planned” (Harris, 2010, p.207).
- Impact evaluation: Focuses on “the immediate observable effects of a program, lead- ing to the intended outcomes of a program; intermediate outcomes” (Green & Lewis, 1986, p. 363). Measures of awareness, knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors yield impact evaluation data. Most notably, impact evaluation is associated with behavioral impact or change (Windsor et al., 2004).
- Outcome evaluation: Focuses on “an ultimate goal or product of a program or treatment, generally measured in the health field by mortality or morbidity data in a population, vital measures, symptoms, signs, or physiological indicators on individu- als” (Green & Lewis, 1986, p. 364). Outcome evaluation is long-term in nature and generally takes more time and resources to conduct than impact evaluation. Ulti- mately, it makes a determination of the effect of a program or policy on its benefi- ciaries (Harris, 2010).