Jean Baudrillard was famous for postulating that our contemporary society is
“hyperreal,” that signs and symbols (like words) do not refer to real referents
(signified things) anymore, but to other signs and symbols. (Think about how “lol”
refers to “laughing out-loud,” so one sign, “lol”, equals another, “laughing out-loud,”
even though you may not actually be laughing out-loud. Similarly, think about brands and the pervasiveness of proper names like “McDonald’s” in our society.) Discuss this in at least three texts.