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Human Development & Personality- Psychology Majors ONLY-GIVE YOU OPINION TO ARTICLE AND CITED WORK

When looking at the definition of definition of personality it states, “personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psycho physical systems that determine his characteristics behavior and though” (Allport, 1961, p. 28). It is also states that personality can be defines as “the characteristics or blend of characteristics that make a person unique” (Weinberg & Gould, 1999). There have been many theorists that studied personality. The ones that I found most interesting we Sigmund Freud psycho dynamic theory of personality and Bandura Social learning theory,


Sigmund Freud’s psycho dynamic theory of personality assumes there is an interaction between nature (innate instincts) and nurture (parental influences). His theory involves instinctual drives, unconscious response and early childhood experiences. “In his theory he believes personality development depends on the interplay of instinct and environment during the first five years of life. Parental behavior is crucial to normal and abnormal development. Personality and mental health problems in adulthood can usually be traced back to the first five years.” (Mcloud, 2014)

Feud saw that personality is structured into three parts. The id, ego and superego all developing at different stages of life.

The id is the primitive and instinctive component of personality The ego develops in order to mediate between the unrealistic id and the external real world. Finally the superego corporates the values and morals of society which are learned from one’s parents and others.(Freud, 1923)

Sigmunds Freud theory makes the most sense to me because it says that interaction between people and the environment effect personality. Many of these theorists help us develop a better understanding when it relates to behavior and mental process in humans.





Many contemporary personality psychologists believe that there are five basic dimensions of personality, often referred to as the” Big 5 personality traits. The five broad personality traits described by the theory are extraversion, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness and neuroticism. When talking about the Big 5 trait theory many employees use the big five personality dimensions to help place employees to place them in working area they can be successful in. That is because these dimensions are considered to be the underlying traits that make up an individual’s overall personality. The first personality trait extraversion are people who are social, talkative, and assertive. When working with these people they are very outgoing people and tend to gain energy in social situations. When put into a social situation these people tend to talkative and very social. The second personality trait is agreeableless. These people tend to be more cooperative in a work environement rather than people who dont show the personality agreeableness tend to be more competitive and manipulative in the work environment. The third personalty trait people may show is conscientiousness. People show high levels of thoughtfulness, with good impulse control and goal-directed behaviors. Those high on conscientiousness tend to be organized and mindful of details. When working with these people they tend to be motivated with praise and will work above and beyond their job description. The fourth personality trait openness features characteristics such as imagination and insight, and those high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of interests. People who are high in this trait tend to be more adventurous and creative. People low in this trait are often much more traditional and may struggle with abstract thinking. The fifth personalty trait Neuroticism is a trait characterized by sadness, moodiness, and emotional instability. Individuals who are high in this trait tend to experience mood swings, anxiety, moodiness, irritability and sadness. Those low in this trait tend to be more stable and emotionally resilient People show the personalty trait of neuroticism may tend to be less motivated in the workforce.




“When looking at the other personality theories that can shape and individual in the work force I look at the social learning theory. Social cognitive theories emphasize the active, conscious aspects of personality and suggest that individuals interpret events differently due to their memories, beliefs, and expectations” ( Online learning center)This theory is by Albert Bandura.. “When looking at Social learning theory there are three different elements of personality functioning that distinguish individuals from one another:schemas (organized sets of knowledge), tasks (the goals we set for ourselves), and strategies (the techniques and procedures we use to work on our life tasks). Other social cognitive theorists emphasize self schemas the set of knowledge about the self that guides perception and interpretation of information in a social setting.” “Although the social cognitive learning approach has been becoming more popular and influential, they do not explain why people tend to show consistent behavior in widely varying situations. Furthermore, they do not prove that the way we think about ourselves determines our behavior; perhaps behavior determines the way we think about ourselves. Finally, social cognitive theories tend to neglect emotions.” (Online learning center) When looking at one of my fellow teachers I can see this theory best fits her. It has 3 elements that will distinguish her personality from other teachers. I believe she falls into tasks because she always sets high expectations for herself and always strives to do more. Other fellow teachers may not fall into this elements. 


When looking at the social learning theory I do believe their can be limitations and disadvantages when looking at personality. . People that are excited about social learning make emphasis of the idea that everyone has abilities that can help them achieve their potential and goals in life (Schultz & Schultz, 2016).Teachers in general have used social learning theory to determine every student has their own abilities and can strive in different ways to reach their goals. On the flip side teachers do use this theory to determine students that are struggling to possibly have low self esteem which effects their low academic progress. There has been research done saying people who have improved themselves by learning how to deal with different environmental situations that could effect them. I conclusion even though this theory may have its down falls I do believe that people tend to learn how to be able to improve their abilities and strengths to reach their goals.


After doing some research I really do believe these personalities theories to play effect in our youth. Research has shown that many teenagers and adolescents learn more from their peers as opposed to their parents (Ryckman, 2012).

This is because children model their peers through observation. Our youth does want to mimic their peers and mimic what they see because they think it is acceptable and feel if they do not try they will be an outcast.. This theories can also play a positive effect in our youths. According to Levy-Leboyer (2003), positive peer influence emphasizes on doing what is considered positive so that it can be copied by others. Children who see other children striving and thriving may want to work harder to reach to their full potential. We do have to take into consideration that every child is different and due to family situations and cultural differences this may play a factor. This is why many researches study personality in different cultures so they can compare the differences from one culture to another in relation to personality, Schultz & Schultz (2016) explains that this is the only way by which personality formations and structure can give a reflection of universal truths.  


In my opinion I do believe personality qualities are biologically fixed. “T he balance of your personality is your temperament, all the biologically based tendencies that contribute to your consistent patterns of feeling, thinking and behaving.” “As Spanish philosopher, Jose Ortega y Gasset, put it, The temperament is the I am the foundation of who I am. “(Popova) Even though I believe it is more fixed compared to others when looking into the workforce I do believe that managers that know employees and understand them can play a huge factor in knowing how to motivate them to perform better to reach their goals. In conclusion many different cultures are shaping personality in different ways in it is key to realize that this is changing through generations. Different cultures and society’s have different ways in handling daily life situations. There are many factors to consider personality is just one.




Allport, G. W. (1937).  Personality: A psychological interpretation . New York: H. Holt and. Company.


Bandura, A. (1977).  Social learning theory . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Freud, S. (1920).  Beyond the pleasure principle . SE, 18: 1-64.



Freud, S. (1923).  The ego and the id. SE, 19: 1-66.


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