Chapter 1 The Human Organism
1. Knowledge of the structure of body parts helps us to understand their function. Which of the following is an accurate example of that principle?
a. The basic structural unit of the body is the cell.
b. The internal environment of the body is maintained in a relatively stable condition.
c. Moveable joints allow us to bend our fingers to perform many different actions.
d. Each tissue type is composed of cells that have a similar structure and function.
e. Negative feedback is not homeostatic.
2. Organize the following structural levels of the human body from simplest to most complex.
(4) organ system
a. 12, 2, 3, 4, 5
b. 2, 3, 12, 4, 5
c. 3, 12, 2, 5, 4
d. 4, 2, 3, 12, 5
e. 3, 12, 2, 4, 5
3. The gallblaIDer, liver, and stomach are all part of the
a. endocrine system.
b. cardiovascular system.
c. skeletal system.
d. respiratory system.
e. digestive system.
4. A cell is
a. a small structure within a cell.
b. a structure composed of several tissue types.
c. the basic structural unit of plants and animals.
d. a group of organs with a common set of functions.
e. a group of cells with similar structure and function.
5. Which of the following is most similar to the negative feedback mechanism in human physiology?
a. A car runs out of gas and stops.
b. A teacher marks all the wrong answers on students’ exam papers.
c. A toilet tank refills itself after a flush.
d. An automatic door opens as soon as somebody approaches it.
e. A clock ticks on a shelf.
6. Which of the following sets of directional terms are most appropriately referred to as opposites?
a. distal and proximal
b. medial and inferior
c. superior and ventral
d. anterior and deep
e. lateral and superior
7. The thumb is ___ to the fifth digit (little finger).
8. The anatomical arm refers to the part of the upper limb from the
a. shoulder to the wrist.
b. elbow to the wrist.
c. shoulder to the elbow.
d. elbow to the fingers.
e. shoulder to the fingers.
9. Which of the following is NOT found in the epigastric region?
c. urinary blaIDer
e. large intestine
10. The visceral pleura is
a. a double-layered serous membrane that anchors some of the abdominal organs to the body wall.
b. the serous membrane that covers the lungs.
c. the serous membrane that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities.
d. space located between the visceral and parietal pleura.
e. the membrane that lines the pericardial sac.
Chapter 2 Chemical Basis of Life
1. The four most abundant elements in the human body are
a. carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and iron.
b. carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
c. calcium, hydrogen, sodium, and potassium.
d. carbon, oxygen, magnesium, and zinc.
e. carbon, sulfur, calcium, and potassium.
2. Isotopes of the same element have
a. the same number of neutrons but different numbers of protons.
b. different numbers of protons and electrons.
c. the same mass number.
d. the same atomic number but differ in their mass numbers.
e. no mass number.
a. comprise the majority of the mass of an atom.
b. are located in the nucleus of an atom.
c. have a positive charge of one.
d. are the subatomic particles most involved in bonding behavior of atoms.
e. do not participate in the bonding of atoms.
4. Which of the following is a synthesis reaction?
a. Two amino acids are bonded together to form a dipeptide.
b. Sucrose is chemically separated to form one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose.
c. Sodium chloride is dissolved in water.
d. Several dipeptide chains are formed from digestion of a long polypeptide chain.
e. ATP is converted to ADP.
5. Heat energy is
a. the form of energy that actually does work.
b. movement of ions or electrons.
c. energy that flows between objects with different temperatures.
d. stored energy that could do work but is not doing so.
e. energy that moves in waves.
6. In the reversible reaction, CO2 + H2O « H2CO3 « H+ + HCO3 H+ + HCO3– , a decrease in respiration rate will increase the concentration of CO2 in the blood. What will this do to the amount of H+ in the blood?
a. H+ will increase.
b. H+ will decrease.
c. H+ will be unchanged.
7. Solution A increases its acidity. This means that the
a. solution is closer to neutrality.
b. pH of the solution has increased.
c. solution will now accept more protons.
d. number of hydrogen ions has decreased.
e. number of hydrogen ions has increased.
a. contain subunits called amino acids.
b. are water-soluble.
c. are a type of steroid.
d. are fat-soluble vitamins.
e. are found in cell membranes.
9. What protein structure results from folding or coiling of a polypeptide chain caused by hydrogen bonds between amino acids?
a. quaternary structure
b. tertiary structure
c. secondary structure
d. primary structure
e. peptide structure
10. Arrange the following from largest to smallest:
(2) DNA molecule
(3) skin cell
(4) chicken eggs
a. 12, 2, 3, 4
b. 4, 3, 12, 2
c. 3, 4, 2, 1
d. 2, 3, 12, 4
e. 4, 2, 3, 1
Chapter 3 Cell Biology and Genetics
1. The structural and functional unit of all living organisms is the
e. plasma membrane.
2. In order to study in detail the anatomy of internal cell parts, it would be best to use
c. a transmission electron microscope (TEM).
d. tissue cultures.
e. a scanning electron microscope (SEM).
3. The main components of the plasma membrane are
a. carbohydrates and lipids.
b. lipids and ions.
c. proteins and carbohydrates.
d. proteins and lipids.
e. ions and proteins.
4. When a sperm cell comes into contact with an egg cell, there is a change in the electrical charge across the plasma membrane and various channel proteins close. These channels would be called
a. open-gated channels.
b. voltage-gated channels.
c. chemical-gated channels.
d. ligand-gated channels.
e. nongated ion channels.
5. In general, water-soluble molecules diffuse through the ______ ______; and lipid-soluble molecules diffuse through the ______ ______.
a. membrane channels; membrane channels
b. membrane channels; lipid bilayer
c. lipid bilayer; membrane channels
d. lipid bilayer; lipid bilayer
e. None of these choices is correct.
6. In the process of diffusion, net movement of substances is always from a region
a. outside the cell to a region inside the cell.
b. inside the cell to a region outside the cell.
c. of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration.
d. of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
e. None of these choices is correct.
7. Osmosis is the diffusion of _____ across a selectively permeable membrane.
8. Cyanide stops the production of ATP. Which of the following processes would be affected?
a. simple diffusion
c. active transport
d. facilitated diffusion
a. are extracellular structures.
b. are unspecialized portions of a cell.
c. generally lack membranes.
d. vary in number and type depending on cell function.
e. are structural, but not functional parts of the cell.
10. Messenger RNA
a. is synthesized when a portion of a DNA molecule is transcribed.
b. directs the synthesis of DNA.
c. determines the sequence of nucleotides in the anticodons of tRNA.
d. directs the synthesis of centrioles in the cytoplasm.
e. is not involved in the synthesis of proteins.