Look at the sources below. They give information about a proposed golf course development in Aberdeenshire. Source A The billionaire and the golf course
The American billionaire, Donald Trump, wants to build a “world class” golf course at Menie on the coast to the north of Aberdeen. He is prepared to spend £1 billion on the development, which
would also include a five-star hotel with 450 bedrooms, 500 luxury homes and nearly 1000 timeshare apartments. Some of the apartment blocks would be seven storeys high. Local business
people are enthusiastic and welcome the 2700 permanent jobs which the development would bring (1250 of these would be local) as well as the thousands of additional jobs during construction.
They see this as bringing money into the area. Aberdeen is keen to get into golf tourism, which is worth about £300 million a year elsewhere in Scotland. There have been 958 letters and a
petition with 560 signatures objecting to the development. Source B Location Map
Hotel and holiday homes Championship golf course Site of Special Scientific Interest Boundary of proposed development Dunes boundary
Sand dunes and SSSIs
Sand dunes are formed over thousands of years. They provide a unique, but fragile environment which is dependent on wind-blown sand from the beach. To stop sand blowing over the golf
course, the dunes would have to be stabilised. The sand dunes at Menie are rated as one of the most important dune areas in the whole of the UK. Their importance is recognised by giving them
the legal protection of being an SSSI (a Site of Special Scientific Interest). Both the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) and the Government’s own environmental advisor, Scottish
Natural Heritage, oppose the development. They say it is totally against Scottish and European legal requirements to protect nationally important sites. Source D The decision
When Aberdeenshire councillors rejected Donald Trump’s plans, reaction was varied. The RSPB said, “We are delighted that the destruction of part of the beautiful, unspoilt coastline has been
recognised as too high a price to pay for this development.” Some local businessmen were outraged. “The rest of the world will think we are mad”, said one. “The social and economic benefits of
the investment should have been enough to set aside the environmental concerns. A lot of Aberdeenshire’s traditional industries such as farming, fishing and quarrying are in decline and the
North Sea oil industry cannot go on for ever. This decision will send out the message that, if you want to do big business, don’t do it in Scotland.” However, another local said, “Money and
economic growth aren’t everything. In any case, the profits wouldn’t stay here—they would go to Mr Trump in America.” After a Public Enquiry, the Scottish Government overruled Aberdeenshire
Council and approved the plans, subject to some conditions.
QUESTIONS (a) From the sources, give reasons to explain why some people opposed the golfcourse development on environmental grounds. (b) From the sources, give possible reasons for the
Government’s decision to allow the scheme to go ahead. (c) From your own knowledge, (i) describe ways in which our recreational activities are putting pressure on the environment, and (ii)
describe ways in which some of these problems are being dealt with. (d) “After a Public Enquiry, the Scottish Government . . . approved the plans . . .” From your own knowledge, describe what
happens at a Public Enquiry and how the final decision about a development is arrived at. 4 6 4 6 KU EV
Look at the sources below. They give information about Glenrothes New Town in Fife. Source A Glenrothes New Town
Now over 60 years old, Glenrothes was part of the Government’s New Towns policy to rebuild Scotland’s stock of housing after World War 2. Planners aimed for a population of 35,000. New Towns
were meant to be a break from the industrial past, providing high-tech jobs in clean, attractive environments. Efforts were made to attract new firms, especially from overseas. With its clean air
and modern housing, Glenrothes was marketed as ideal for the electronics industry. In the 1970s, Fife Council moved its Headquarters there, creating many “white collar” jobs. The clean
environment and green open spaces also attracted the senior management who were sent to run the incoming multinational* companies. However, most of the jobs available to local people
involved repetitive assembly work. *A “multinational” is a company which has factories or offices in more than one country. Source B Glenrothes and Scotland: employment by grade Grade
Management and professional Supervisory and skilled Semi-skilled and unskilled Unemployed Full time student Other Glenrothes (%) 33·5 22·0 29·7 4·1 4·7 6·0 Scotland (%) 24·2 22·5 23·0 4·2 7·1 19·0
Source C Glenrothes and Scotland: Main employment categories (Percentage of total)
Manufacturing Shops, hotels and restaurants Banking and insurance Public admin, education and health 0 Source D 10% 20% 30% 40% Glenrothes Scotland
“When America sneezes, Britain catches the cold”
In 1958, the American firm Beckman Instruments was the first major electronics company to open in Glenrothes, creating 600 jobs. Two years later, a second large American company followed.
The opening of the Forth Road Bridge (1964) and the Tay Road Bridge (1966) improved communications, resulting in a wave of multinationals. These in turn attracted smaller UK companies,
supplying components for the larger companies. However, boom turned to bust in the 1980s. American companies relocated to the Far East due to the cheaper labour costs there. This led to
factory closures in Glenrothes and hundreds being made redundant, often having to move elsewhere to find work. American senior management returned home. Both migrations caused a fall in
house prices. The 1990s saw a new wave of multinationals from both America and Japan opening factories, but when sales slumped, these were the first to close. This left empty factories and
empty order books for local suppliers. The 21st century has seen a greater variety of industries in Glenrothes, from book giant Amazon to small scale local businesses.
Marks 2. (continued) QUESTIONS (a) Using Sources A, B and C, describe and suggest reasons for the differences in employment between Glenrothes and the rest of Scotland. (b) “Multi-national
companies have been good for Glenrothes.” Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons from the sources to support your answer. (c) Workers in multi-national companies are often discouraged from
joining Trade Unions. From your own knowledge, describe the advantages and disadvantages of being a member of a Trade Union. (d) Choose an industry you have studied. From your own
knowledge, describe the advantages and disadvantages which modern technology has brought to this industry. 6 4 4 6 KU EV
Look at the sources below. They give information about government in Scotland and elsewhere in the world. Source A Local and Devolved Government in Scotland
The responsibilities of the Scottish Government and local councils in Scotland include: • Education and leisure services (eg schools, museums, libraries) • Social work (eg community care, children
and family services) • Planning and transport (eg roads, public transport, planning applications, economic development) • Environmental services (eg rubbish collection, street lighting, parks and
cemeteries) • Housing (allocation and maintenance of publicly-owned housing) • Police and fire services • Finance (managing local income and spending, collecting council tax) • Health (the
provision of health care, hospitals, doctors etc). Source B The United Kingdom Government in Scotland
The responsibilities of the United Kingdom Government in Scotland include the organisation of: • Defence (the maintenance of the army, navy and air force) • Broadcasting (the organisation of
television and radio) • Immigration (the control of the numbers and origins of immigrants) • Finance (the raising and spending of income tax, VAT etc) • Social security payments. Source C
Country Scotland Denmark Ethiopia Kenya Luxembourg Norway Scotland compared with some independent countries Area (sq km) 77 000 43 000 1 128 000 583 000 2600 324 000 Population 5 100
000 5 000 000 57 200 000 30 000 000 414 000 4 400 000 *GNP per person £15 000 (estimated) £23 700 £75 £220 £30 300 £24 000
*GNP per person is the amount of money a country earns, in a year, divided by its population. It gives an idea of the relative wealth of different countries.
Scotland compared with other places which have some degree of self-government (devolution) Area (sq km) 77 000 411 000 32 000 1 542 000 1 727 000 Population 5 100 000 37 500 000 7 220 000 7
600 000 3 500 000 Political Status Nation within the UK State of the USA Region of Spain Province of Canada State of Australia
Place Scotland California Catalonia Quebec Queensland;
(a) “All of the most important concerns of the people of Scotland are catered for by the local and devolved government system.” Using Sources A and B, say to what extent you agree with the
(b) “An independent country must be big, with a large population, and wealthy. Even for devolved government, Scotland does not qualify.” Do you agree or disagree? Using Sources C and D, give
reasons to support your choice.
(c) From your own knowledge, describe how a person becomes a local councillor and what they might do to serve the community.
(d) Scotland has a distinct identity within the UK. Give examples of distinctive Scottish institutions (such as the Law) and describe how they make Scotland different from other parts of the UK. 6
6 4 4.