G. K. a 46-year old African-American female is admitted to the hospital because of feeling weak, being thirsty a lot, and having frequent urination. On assessment, the physician notes G.K. having fruity breath odor, skin is warm and dry, slightly drowsy, and with deep and rapid respiratory effort. She states some numbness and tingling of fingers and toes; a dime-size reddened area on the lateral aspect of the right toe is also noted.
Past medical history reveals that G.K. was diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes a year ago. Shes been taking glipizide 5 mg every morning before breakfast. Her father had a history of Type 2 diabetes and died of acute myocardial infarction four months ago. A week prior to admission to the hospital, she had some flu-like symptoms that resolved with self-medication of Tylenol extra strength, orange juice, and bedrest.
Laboratory results reveal the following:
Serum glucose: 650 mg/dl
Serum K+: 6.2 mEq/L
Arterial blood gas: pH 7.25; PaCO2 30 mm Hg; HCO3 14 mEq/L
The physicians admitting diagnosis: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, probable diabetic ketoacidosis.
Answer the following questions:
- Describe the risk factors evidenced in G. K.s history that are compatible to her developing the diabetes mellitus (1 point).
- Compare and contrast the pathophysiology of different types of diabetes mellitus (3 points).
- Identify the clinical manifestations of diabetes mellitus as presented by G.K. (2 points)
- List at least 3 important laboratory tests used to diagnose diabetes mellitus (1 point).
- Describe the medical management used in treating clients with diabetes mellitus (1 point).
- Enumerate and explain the acute and chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. Give 2 examples of each complication (2 points).